Drugs of abuse may give the user a feeling of pleasure, but it is important to remember that they are toxic substances. The vast majority of drug overdose cases involve the use of more than one drug. In 2003 the Drug Abuse Warning Network reported an average of 2.7 drugs in fatal overdose cases. Importantly in these cases, no single drug is usually present at a lethal dose. Rather it is the synergistic effect (think: 1+1=3) of the combining of drugs that is lethal. For example, a combination of heroin and alcohol can be especially dangerous. Heroin and alcohol both suppress breathing, but by different mechanisms.
Deadly drug: Heroin
Heroin is the cause for more deaths by overdose than any other single drug. The majority of these deaths ultimately result from respiratory failure. A toxic dose of heroin increases the inhibitory effect of GABA, which causes breathing to slow and eventually stop.
Deadly drug: Alcohol
Alcohol overdoses occur predominantly in two ways. First, a high intake of alcohol causes unconsciousness. At high levels, it can also cause breathing to slow or cease. Second, the body tries to rid itself of unabsorbed alcohol by emptying the stomach. If a person vomits while they are unconscious, they may inhale the vomit and compromise their breathing or even drown.
Deadly drug combo: Heroin and alcohol
Heroin and alcohol together is especially dangerous, experts say, because alcohol can exaggerate heroin’s effect on the central nervous system.
Drugs that depress that central nervous system slow the heartbeat, or in large enough doses, can stop it from beating entirely. Without oxygen-rich blood pumping to the body, brain cells become depleted and can die within minutes. Heroin, a highly addictive opiate drug, is considered a depressant because of its effects sedating the central nervous system. Alcohol also functions as a depressant. Combining these two depressants forms a deadly drug combination.
Ingesting alcohol and using heroin simultaneously can result in a coma that leaves the patient with permanent brain damage that causes lasting cognitive, behavioral, and physical disability. Combining these two substances can even be fatal. The danger occurs because both substances slow down the functions of the central nervous system, which regulates heart rate and breathing. Once the flow of blood or oxygen to the brain is disrupted severely enough or for a long enough period of time, brain damage will result. At that point, the brain can no longer send necessary messages to control and regulate other major organs, so that if the process is not reversed in time by immediate medical intervention, the results will be catastrophic.
While this deadly drug combo of heroin and alcohol won’t create a third toxic substance like cocaine and alcohol; it can be potentially fatal and is highly dangerous. There have been many people who have overdosed on non-lethal amounts of both substances just due to the fact that they were mixed together. In fact, one of the most recent overdoses of heroin and alcohol combined you probably heard of: Glee star Cory Monteith.
If you or someone you know needs treatment for Alcohol or Heroin Addiction please call us at 800-951-6135 or visit us online at www.palmpartners.com.
“But I would not feel so all alone, everybody must get stoned.” – Bob Dylan (Rainy Day Women #12 & 35)
I don’t want to generalize this decade as a decade of sex, drugs, and rock &roll, but that is probably an accurate description of it. At least for those who were involved with the counterculture, beat generation and were “hippies”. The 60’s were characterized by change not just in civil rights and the protests against Vietnam but also in music and the use of illicit drugs. An entire book could be written on the changes that happened in the 60’s and many books have been written.
Today, we are going to talk about the history of drug abuse and one of the biggest changes in the 60’s which was the widespread use of illicit drugs, primarily hallucinogens such as marijuana and LSD.
Before this time, drugs, specifically marijuana was primarily used by jazz musicians and hip characters in the inner cities. This was known as the beat generation.
(Beat generation, is a term applied to certain American artists and writers who were popular during the 1950s. Essentially anarchic, members of the beat generation rejected traditional social and artistic forms. The beats sought immediate expression in multiple, intense experiences and beatific illumination like that of some Eastern religions such as Zen Buddhism. In literature they adopted rhythms of simple American speech and of bop and progressive jazz. Among those associated with the movement were the novelists Jack Kerouac and Chandler Brossard, numerous poets (e.g., Kenneth Rexroth, Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, and Gregory Corso), and others, many of whom worked in and around San Francisco. During the 1960s “beat” ideas and attitudes were absorbed by other cultural movements, and those who practiced something akin to the “beat” lifestyle were called “hippies.”)
And, LSD, which was virtually unknown to American society in the early sixties and was still legal until 1966. LSD gained widespread recognition as a result of the very public exploits of so-called acid gurus, Timothy Leary and Ken Kesey. By the mid-sixties, seemingly overnight, marijuana and LSD use was common across the country, especially among the young.
People who were involved with drug use in the 60’s also began looking to religious ceremonies of Native Americans where peyote and mescaline were used, to references of marijuana use for spiritual and medicinal purposes in ancient texts, and to books like Aldous Huxley’s The Doors of Perception, where Huxley writes of his experimentation with mescaline in Mexico. Other more harmful drugs followed: cocaine, heroin, amphetamines and barbiturates, and the idea of using mind-expanding drugs to gain insight into the world gave way to plain recreational, often harmful use. And harmful use leads to overdoses and deaths.
NOTABLE DEATHS IN THE 1960s DUE TO DRUGS: Believe it or not Janis Joplin (heroin overdose) and Jimi Hendrix (asphyxiation on vomit) didn’t die in the 60s but in the early 70s. Who did die in the 60s are: Rudy Lewis (The Drifters) of an overdose, Dinah Washington (jazz pianist and singer), Brian Epstein (Manager of The Beatles), and Frankie Lymon (Frankie Lymon and Teenagers).
Drug abuse in the 1960s
Marijuana use in the 1960s: A campaign conducted in the 1930s by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics (now the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs) sought to portray marijuana as a powerful, addicting substance that would lead users into narcotics addiction. It is still considered a “gateway” drug by some authorities. In the 1950s it was an accessory of the beat generation; in the 1960s it was used by college students and “hippies” and became a symbol of rebellion against authority. The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 classified marijuana along with heroin and LSD as a Schedule I drug which means it has the relatively highest abuse potential and no accepted medical use.
LSD use in the 1960s: LSD has a really interesting place in the 60’s generation making its way into the military as well as social and cultural movements. LSD was popularized in the 1960s by individuals such as psychologist Timothy Leary, who encouraged American students to “turn on, tune in, and drop out.” (This cryptic message meant to tune into what is happening, turn on to drugs, especially LSD and marijuana, and drop out of society’s expectations of your future.) Shortly after this news articles about how LSD had caused people to “blow their minds” became pretty frequent. One story told of two teenagers who were “tripping” on LSD and stared directly into the sun until they were permanently blinded. This and other fear-based stories were never documented, and were probably not true, but they demonstrated society’s strong reaction to the psychedelic drug craze. Regardless, Timothy Leary helped to create an entire counterculture of drug abuse that spread the drug from America to the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe. Even today, use of LSD in the United Kingdom is significantly higher than in other parts of the world. And all the while the ‘60s counterculture used LSD to escape the problems of society, the Western intelligence community and the military saw it as a potential chemical weapon. In 1951, these organizations began a series of experiments. US researchers noted that LSD “is capable of rendering whole groups of people, including military forces, indifferent to their surroundings and situations, interfering with planning and judgment, and even creating apprehension, uncontrollable confusion and terror.” Experiments in the possible use of LSD to change the personalities of intelligence targets, and to control whole populations, continued until the United States officially banned the drug in 1967.
Heroin use in the 1960s: Injecting heroin believe it or not was still frowned upon in the 1960s. In fact Abbie Hoffman had this to say about “needle drugs” Avoid all needle drugs. “The only dope worth shooting is Richard Nixon.” Throughout the 1960s, heroin remained the most feared and romanticized drug in America, with estimates of a half a million addicted heroin users by the end of the decade. However, there weren’t any truly valid methods of estimating the incidence and prevalence of drug use in these years and these figures are probably lower than the actual drug use and abuse in the 1960s.
Barbiturate use in the 1960s: Barbiturates were first used in medicine in the early 1900s and became popular in the 1960s and 1970s as treatment for anxiety, insomnia, or seizure disorders. With the popularity of barbiturates in the medical population, barbiturates as drugs of abuse evolved as well. Barbiturates were abused to reduce anxiety, decrease inhibitions, and treat unwanted effects of illicit drugs. Studies do show that the annual production of barbiturate drugs exceeded one million pounds, the equivalent of twenty-four one-and one-half grain doses for every man, woman and child in the nation, or enough to kill each person twice over.
No drug or substance was off limits during the 60s. The 1960s were probably the decade where drug use changed the most and is probably one of the only decades exclusively defined by a counterculture movement full of protest, spiritual expansion, rebellion, art, and music. This unknown quote probably says it better than anyone else could:
“If you can remember the ’60s, then you weren’t there.” -Unknown
If you or someone you love is in need of addiction treatment, please give us a call at 800-951-6135.
A yearlong investigation by The Center for Investigative Reporting and CNN has found that several California drug rehab clinics have been defrauding taxpayers. These clinics collect thousands of dollars of government funding for clients that don’t exist and/or services not rendered.
The investigation, which included undercover surveillance and stakeouts, uncovered a rehab racket that continues to this day. Rehab Racket started Tuesday night on AC360° at 8 and 10 p.m. ET on CNN.
The clinics, which were defrauding the state Drug Medi-Cal program, rounded up clients from foster care group homes and homeless shelters, whether or not they had a drug problem. They lured in mentally ill patients from local board and care homes. They found patients on the street by bribing them with cash, cigarettes and snacks. They would have patients sign in for days they weren’t there.
At least one clinic billed for patients that never came in, fabricating notes on their sessions. Some were behind bars; one was dead.
CNN and CIR reported that Drug Medi-Cal paid out $94 million in the past two fiscal years to 56 clinics in Southern California that have shown signs of deception or questionable billing practices, representing half of all public funding to the program.
CNN and CIR report that as a result of the investigation, the state Department of Health Care Services temporarily suspended 16 clinics suspected of flouting the law and pledged to tighten oversight and on Tuesday announced it had suspended 13 more.
However, the clinics have become adept at sidestepping regulations, and some of the fraudulent rehab clinics are still operational.
This just illustrates how daunting it can be to find a treatment center you can trust. Often, a simple internet search is simply not enough. Even if you attend a state funded rehab program, you should always check the credentials of the facility you are considering. Ask them about the education of their staff. Find out how long the center has been treating patients and what their success rate is. Request information about their philosophy in treating addiction. These questions may help you learn more about the program at a state funded or private rehab center:
Do you use a 12-step approach or an alternative treatment philosophy?
Is it inpatient or outpatient treatment?
What is the average length of stay?
What methods do you use to treat patients?
How are families involved in the treatment process?
Does your treatment center offer any follow-up program to help prevent relapse?
What is your staff to client ratio?
What are the goals and philosophy of your drug and alcohol rehab center?
For more information on finding a drug rehab you can trust, please give us a call at 800-951-6135.
If you or someone you love is looking for a detox center in Tallahasee, please give us a call at 800-951-6135.
Tallahassee is the capital of Florida. Tallahassee is also home to several colleges and universities, notably Florida State University and Florida A&M University. Others include Tallahassee Community College and branches of Saint Leo University, Thomas University, Keiser University, Barry University, Flagler College, and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. With all of the colleges that find their homes in Tallahassee there are also many college age students that find themselves binge drinking and partying. Binge drinking and partying can easily lead to alcohol and addiction problems. And alcohol and addiction problems lead to a detox center, in fortunate cases. A detox center in Tallahassee can allow someone whose drinking or drug use has gotten out of hand, clean up and return back to life.
Detox centers in Tallahassee are the place to go to begin a journey in recovery by cleansing the mind and body. The word detox is literally defined as; intervention to control drug and alcohol use and the withdrawal associated with them. The word detox is different than withdrawal in the sense that the detox in Tallahassee is meant to help control and give comfort for any withdrawal symptoms a user may be experiencing due to the cessation of their drug and alcohol use. Detox centers in Tallahassee do not always deal with the psychological, social or behavioral aspects of addiction and alcoholism. This aspect varies from detox center to detox center. Regardless, detox centers in Tallahassee deal more so with the physical modality of removing toxins from a user’s body in order to give them the jump start to their physical health which is imperative to continuing on with their mental, behavioral and psychological sobriety.
There are steps when entering into detox centers in Tallahassee due to withdrawal symptoms. When a user first enters into a detox center in Tallahassee they will be given an evaluation by the clinicians. This is the first step in detox centers in Tallahassee. The evaluation will go over what drugs the user was involved with, how much of these drugs the user was using, and how the user was going about using the drugs.
The evaluation will also include a drug test to acquire the level of toxins or drugs and alcohol in a user’s body. This will allow the clinicians to determine if medication is needed in the detox process. It will also allow the clinicians at the detox centers in Tallahassee to be medically safe in the distribution of medication, if any medication at all is needed. Usually some kind of medication will be given during an individual’s stay at a detox center in Tallahassee, to help with the discomfort of any withdrawal symptoms. The clinicians will then go over a quick background and history with the user or client. This will allow the clinicians at the detox center in Tallahassee to determine if behavioral and psychological issues exist and if a dual diagnosis is appropriate. If the detox center in Tallahassee also deals with mental health issues this will allow the detox center in Tallahassee to give a user the appropriate medication to also help them deal with any kind of depression, anxiety, or trauma effectively.
The second step in a detox center in Tallahassee is stabilization of the client. Stabilization is a process which takes time. Stabilization at a detox center in Tallahassee means that the client no longer is at risk of any health problems due to withdrawal symptoms, the drugs and alcohol have been removed, and the appropriate medication has been taken, prescribed or completed. How much time it takes a user to become stable during their stay at a detox center in Tallahassee varies depending on what kind of drugs or alcohol and how much of each the client was using. During this stabilization period in a detox center in Tallahassee, the client will be given the medication found appropriate or needed based on what drugs and alcohol they were using. This will give the client comfort during their drug detox stabilization period.
As the toxins begin to leave the client’s mind and body the clinicians will begin describing to them what to expect in the near future after detox in Tallahassee is complete. Recovery is a journey not a destination and the clinicians are there to emphasize what the client needs to do after they go to a detox center in Tallahassee so they never have to experience the pain and discomfort of withdrawal symptoms again. Once the stabilization period of a detox center in Tallahassee has ended the client is now safely and medically detoxed. This means that they no longer need the medication to stabilize them during drug detox, no longer have any health risks and are healthy enough to continue on. All the drugs and alcohol have been physically removed. After this point a more long term treatment in Tallahassee; that is focused on mental, behavioral and psychological problems is recommended.
If you or someone you love is looking for a detox center in Tallahasee, please give us a call at 800-951-6135.
Drug Culture of the 1970s
The counter-culture of the 1960s’ spilled over into the following decade, leaving a lasting impact on the drug scene and pop culture of the 1970s. When I think of the seventies, I think of marijuana, tie-dye, mushrooms, and acid. But, the presence of so-called harder drugs was becoming more prevalent at this time in our culture. Cocaine and heroin began to take hold. For example, at the end of 1969, there were more than 100,000 heroin addicts living in New York City, alone, which experienced 900 deaths due to heroin addiction, overdose, and contamination. And of those 900, 224 were teenagers. In fact, at this time, the leading cause of death amongst people aged 15 to 35 was drug abuse.
Perception of Drug Use in the 1970s
The scare tactics of the 1960s gave way to the contradictory messages of the late ’70s and early ’80s. Drugs became glamorous, without becoming better understood. The ranks of those who had tried illegal drugs grew — in 1973, 12% of respondents to a Gallup poll said they had tried marijuana. That number had doubled by 1977.
As drug use increased, many Americans began to see it as a problem. In 1978, 66% of Americans said marijuana was a serious problem in the high schools or middle school in their area, and 35% said the same of hard drugs.
Towards the end of the 70s, drugs became even more popular. They became glamorous and less understood because most celebrities were doing them. People believed it was cool and weren’t aware of the effects because the good effects were highly advertised against the bad.
David Bowie, a famous musician and fashion icon, was one of these celebrities. He was famous for doing cocaine in the 70s but later on he gave it up and has recently said that he wished he never did them because drugs took over his life.
The War on Drugs in the 70s
1971: “Public Enemy Number One”
With passage of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, the federal government took a more active role in drug enforcement and drug abuse prevention. Nixon, who called drug abuse “public enemy number one” in a 1971 speech, emphasized treatment at first and used his administration’s clout to push for the treatment of drug addicts, particularly heroin addicts.
Nixon also targeted the trendy, psychedelic image of illegal drugs, asking celebrities such as Elvis Presley to help him send the message that drug abuse is unacceptable. Seven years later, Presley himself fell to drug abuse; toxicologists found as many as fourteen legally prescribed drugs, including narcotics, in his system at the time of his death.
1973: Building an Army: DEA Officers
Before the 1970s, drug abuse was seen by policymakers primarily as a social disease that could be addressed with treatment. After the 1970s, drug abuse was seen by policymakers primarily as a law enforcement problem that could be addressed with aggressive criminal justice policies.
The addition of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to the federal law enforcement apparatus in 1973 was a significant step in the direction of a criminal justice approach to drug enforcement. If the federal reforms of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 represented the formal declaration of the War on Drugs, the Drug Enforcement Administration became its foot soldiers.
The atmosphere 0f the 1970s is what gave way to the oft-quoted anti-drug campaign of the 1980s: “Just Say No.”
Several different strategies, mostly from a conservative stance, have been tried and have failed. Drug culture persists and is a force to be reckoned with; it wreaks havoc on communities and local and federal economies.
If you or someone you love is in need of drug or alcohol addiction treatment, please give us a call at 800-951-6135.